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A loom is a machine used to make fabrics with yarn or other fibers. A fabric made of a loom is produced by interlacing two sets of wires arranged at right angles. Longitudinal threads are called warp, and cross threads are called a frame.
Warp is the set of threads arranged vertically on the loom before starting the knitting process. In weuedry when talking about “thread” is to refer to one of these that form the warp.
The weft is the set of threads that are arranged horizontally and that are intertwined with those that are arranged vertically – warp- . A pick will be the moment when warp threads intertwine to a frame.
Preparation of warp (winding a warp) is the basic process by which all the threads that will form the warp are measured, aligned and put in order. To carry out this project it is necessary to have a wall warper that will also easily make the cross of the warp threads.
Cross of warp threads (threading cros) is one of the most important steps in the weuishing process. It forms between two spikes of the warper by alternately passing a thread over and a thread below each of these spikes. This will be crucial to maintain the order of all threads and will greatly facilitate the task of passing the entire warp through the comb or the meshes on the loom.
Bridge-guard rods are two rods or flat sticks slightly longer than the width of the warp that are placed between the two openings of the cross thus maintaining the order of the threads to facilitate the passage through the comb and by the meshes.
The meshes (heddles) can be wires, braided nylon or simply ropes with an opening or eye in their central position and through which a warp thread passes.
Shafts are the frames or frames that support the meshes. When a lizo rises or descends, all warp threads that pass through its meshes rise or descend. The frame will pass through the opening (calada) that forms when some lizos are up and others are down.
Warping sticks are thin wooden slats longer than the width of the warp once placed in the warp folder. They are essential to be able to tighten each thread equally in the folding machine. On each turn of the folding machine two of these rods are usually placed.
Tying on is the process in which warp threads are passed through the eyelets of the meshes in a certain order to reach the desired ligament.
Sleying the reed is to pass one or more warp thread through the comb. This achieves the desired separation between threads and the width in loom that the fabric will have.
Bat (beater)is a type of frame that supports the comb. It is mounted to the loom through two pivots, one on each side, and this whole set in its swinging motion, makes the weft located in the woven piece.
(reed holders) are wooden supports that hold the comb upright so that the warp can be more comfortably rather sealed on a table rather than on the same loom.
Pedals (treadles) are connected to the lizos to make them up and down in the combinations required by the structure of the fabric to be performed.
Armor (tie-up) shows the connection of the lizos to the pedals, that is, that lizos have to rise and which to go down according to the structure of the required fabric.
Fabric structure is the order in which warp and hatch threads are intertwined.